Mechanical Spindle An Axis That Drives A Workpiece Or Tool To Rotate On A Machine

- Sep 20, 2017 -

The mechanical spindle refers to the axis on which the workpiece or tool rotates on the machine. Spindle parts are usually composed of spindle, bearing and drive parts (gears or pulleys). In the machine is mainly used to support the transmission parts such as gears, pulleys, transmission movement and torque, such as machine tool spindle; In addition to planer, broaching machine, such as the main movement of the linear movement of machines, most of the machine tools have spindle components. The kinematic accuracy and stiffness of the spindle parts are important factors to determine the machining quality and the cutting efficiency. The index of measuring the performance of spindle parts is the adaptability of rotational precision, stiffness and speed. ① Rotation accuracy: the radial and axial runout (see form-position tolerance) in the direction of spindle rotation affecting machining accuracy is mainly determined by the manufacturing and assembling quality of the spindle and bearing. ② dynamic and static stiffness: mainly depends on the bending stiffness of the spindle, the stiffness and damping of the bearing. ③ Speed Adaptability: Allows the maximum speed and speed range, mainly depends on the bearing structure and lubrication, as well as the heat dissipation conditions.

Before the 930s, most of the machine tool spindle used single oil wedge sliding bearing. With the improvement of rolling bearing manufacturing technology, a variety of high precision and high stiffness rolling bearings were later appeared. This kind of bearing is convenient, the price is low, the friction coefficient is small, the lubrication is convenient, and can adapt the working condition that the speed and the load change amplitude is larger, thus obtains the widespread application. But the sliding bearing has the advantages of stable work and good anti-vibration, especially the dynamic pressure bearing of various oil wedges, which is used in some finishing machines such as grinder. After the 50 's, the hydrostatic bearing with high precision, high rigidity, small friction coefficient, good vibration resistance and smoothness, but need a complex oil supply equipment, so only used in high-precision machine tools and heavy machine tools. Gas bearing high speed performance, but because of the small capacity, and the gas supply equipment is also complex, mainly used in high-speed internal grinder and a few ultra-precision machining machine. In the early 70, the electromagnetic bearing has the advantages of high speed performance and large bearing capacity, and it can make micro-displacement by adjusting magnetic field in the cutting process, in order to improve the precision of machining, but it can be used for ultra-precision machining machine.

The spindle of a machine tool refers to the axis on which the workpiece or tool rotates. Spindle parts are usually composed of spindle, bearing and drive parts (gears or pulleys). Spindle is the most common part of the machine, mainly composed of internal and external cylindrical thread spline and transverse hole, the main role of the spindle is the implementation of the lathe, it is mainly to support the transmission and transmission torque, in the work of the workpiece driven by it directly participate in surface forming movement, while the spindle also ensure that the workpiece on the lathe other parts have the correct relative position. Therefore, the working performance of the spindle components has an important impact on the machining quality and the productivity of the lathe. The transmission mode of the spindle is the combination of belt drive and gear drive, the result of various lathe spindle parts is different, but their use is basically consistent, and the requirements of the structure are the same, The performance of the lathe is required to adapt to the use of the performance of the choice of precision stiffness, lathe type of different spindle working conditions are also different.

Main functions of lathe spindle:

1, guarantee the support rigidity;

2, to ensure the accuracy of rotation (radial run-out accuracy, and axial channeling accuracy);

3, the connection function (Chuck, disk);

4, the internal cone and end surface wear resistance (hardness requirements);

5. Static balance and dynamic balance of spindle assembly.

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